In Go, **operators** are symbols used to perform operations, such as arithmetic, logical, or bitwise operations. This lesson will cover different types of operators and their behaviour, along with examples and ASCII diagrams where needed.

### Arithmetic Operators

Go supports the following arithmetic operators for both integers and floating-point numbers:

**Addition**:`+`

**Subtraction**:`-`

**Multiplication**:`*`

**Division**:`/`

**Modulus**:`%`

(for integers only)

#### Integer Division Example

In Go, division between integers results in a **floored** integer result.

```
9 / 4 = 2 // Floored result, no decimal part
```

For floating-point numbers, division by zero results in `+Inf`

, while integer division by zero causes a run-time panic.

#### Shortcut Assignment Operators

Go provides shortcut operators to simplify operations like:

`b += a`

(equivalent to`b = b + a`

)`b -= a`

(equivalent to`b = b - a`

)`b *= a`

(equivalent to`b = b * a`

)`b /= a`

(equivalent to`b = b / a`

)`b %= a`

(equivalent to`b = b % a`

)

#### Unary Increment and Decrement

Go supports the **increment** (`++`

) and **decrement** (`--`

) operators, but they can only be used as standalone statements (not expressions):

```
i++ // Equivalent to i = i + 1
i-- // Equivalent to i = i - 1
```

### Logical Operators

Logical operators in Go are used to compare values or combine Boolean conditions. The most common logical operators are:

**Equality (**`==`

): Returns true if both operands are equal.**Not-Equal (**`!=`

): Returns true if operands are different.**Less-than (**`<`

),**Greater-than (**`>`

)**Less-than or equal (**`<=`

),**Greater-than or equal (**`>=`

)

#### Example of Logical Comparison

```
5 > 3 // true
7 <= 5 // false
"abc" == "abc" // true
```

In Go, logical comparisons are strict, meaning both operands must be of the same type (e.g., comparing an `int`

with an `int32`

directly will result in a compiler error).

#### Boolean Logical Operators

Go also provides the following **Boolean operators**:

**AND (**`&&`

): True if both operands are true.**OR (**`||`

): True if at least one operand is true.**NOT (**`!`

): Negates a Boolean value (i.e.,`true`

becomes`false`

and vice versa).

```
true && false // false
true || false // true
!true // false
```

These operators **short-circuit**. For example, in an `&&`

operation, if the left operand is `false`

, the right operand is not evaluated.

### Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators in Go operate on the binary representation of integers.

#### Common Bitwise Operators

**Bitwise AND (**`&`

)**Bitwise OR (**`|`

)**Bitwise XOR (**`^`

)**Bitwise AND NOT (**`&^`

) (clear bits)**Bitwise NOT (**`^`

) (complement)

Here's how they work using ASCII diagrams:

#### Bitwise AND (`&`

)

The **AND** operator compares corresponding bits of two integers and returns `1`

if both bits are `1`

; otherwise, it returns `0`

.

Example: `5 & 3`

```
5 in binary: 0101
3 in binary: 0011
----
Result: 0001 (which is 1 in decimal)
```

#### Bitwise OR (`|`

)

The **OR** operator compares corresponding bits and returns `1`

if at least one of the bits is `1`

.

Example: `5 | 3`

```
5 in binary: 0101
3 in binary: 0011
----
Result: 0111 (which is 7 in decimal)
```

#### Bitwise XOR (`^`

)

The **XOR** operator returns `1`

only if one of the bits is `1`

and the other is `0`

.

Example: `5 ^ 3`

```
5 in binary: 0101
3 in binary: 0011
----
Result: 0110 (which is 6 in decimal)
```

#### Bitwise AND NOT (`&^`

)

This operator clears bits in the first operand where the second operand has `1`

bits.

Example: `5 &^ 3`

```
5 in binary: 0101
3 in binary: 0011
----
Result: 0100 (which is 4 in decimal)
```

#### Bitwise Shift Operators

**Left Shift (**`<<`

): Shifts the bits to the left, effectively multiplying the number by powers of 2.**Right Shift (**`>>`

): Shifts the bits to the right, dividing the number by powers of 2.

Example of left shift by 2 (`a << 2`

):

```
a = 5 in binary: 00000101
Shift left by 2: 00010100 (now a = 20 in decimal)
```

Example of right shift by 2 (`a >> 2`

):

```
a = 20 in binary: 00010100
Shift right by 2: 00000101 (now a = 5 in decimal)
```

### Operator Precedence

Operator precedence determines the order in which operations are performed. Operators with higher precedence are evaluated before operators with lower precedence. Here's a quick summary:

Precedence | Operator(s) |

7 | `^` , `!` |

6 | `*` , `/` , `%` , `<<` , `>>` , `&` , `&^` |

5 | `+` , `-` , ` |

4 | `==` , `!=` , `<` , `<=` , `>` , `>=` |

3 | `<-` |

2 | `&&` |

1 | ` |

**Parentheses** can be used to override the default precedence, ensuring certain operations are evaluated first.

#### Example of Operator Precedence

```
result := 5 + 3 * 2 // Multiplication happens first
// result = 5 + (3 * 2) = 5 + 6 = 11
```

To change the order of evaluation, use parentheses:

```
result := (5 + 3) * 2 // Addition happens first
// result = (5 + 3) * 2 = 8 * 2 = 16
```

That's it for operators! Understanding how these operators work and their precedence will help you write more efficient and clear code. Now, get ready for the next challenge to test your knowledge!